Paris Agreement Article 11

To achieve the overall goal of the Paris Agreement, international and national cooperation is needed. Article 7 “recognizes the importance of international support and cooperation in adaptation efforts.” [26] However, it does not impose any binding obligation on the parties. Rather, the article states that the parties should “implement” five listed measures on the exchange of political information, the strengthening of institutional agreements, assistance to developing countries in adaptation planning and the overall improvement of adaptation measures. In addition to inviting all parties to undertake these efforts, Article 7 encourages the United Nations to “support the parties` efforts to implement the [articulated] measures.” [27] Nor does this language require the cooperation of United Nations agencies. This article will begin to compare the historical treatment of adaptation, loss and damage with mitigation in international climate change negotiations. The article will then analyze the treatment of adaptation, loss and damage in the Paris Agreement. The Paris Agreement is the first international agreement to explicitly address the losses and damages that the parties to the UNFCCC have treated in the past as an integral part of adaptation. [48] The function of adaptation, loss and damage in tandem, but two different concepts. [49] The World Resources Institute explains that losses and damage are due to reality, that there are certain effects of climate change that cannot be corrected – effects that are so severe that they leave lasting or significant effects. [50] Climate effects related to loss and damage include events that have slowed to acidify the oceans, desertification and sea level rise, as well as sudden extreme weather events, such as intense cyclones and floods. These devastating effects cause many types of losses, including habitat losses for life, infrastructure, assets, ecosystems and communities. [51] The losses and damage caused by the Paris Agreement were one of the most controversial topics of COP21. Developed and developing countries debated whether losses and damages should be included in the decision or agreement and whether they should be organized as part of adaptation or as independent articles.

In the face of such losses, the LDCs and SIDS must give priority to securing a place for losses and damages in the Paris Agreement, where their provisions would carry the full force of law. With regard to liability for the costs of review and damage in developing countries in financial compensation, developed countries have sought to prevent losses and damages from being visible in the agreement.